Saturday, December 25, 2010

Frontline Magazine December 18-31 download here for free

Here is the current issue of Frontline Magazine December 18-31 available for free download , some of the contents of this issue are as follows

    * COMMUNALISM: Uneasy calm in Ayodhya
    * UPDATE: TIRUPUR: Central panel hears workers’ woes
    * TAMIL NADU: Monsoon misery
    * ANDHRA PRADESH: In a state of flux
    * Veteran novice at the helm
    * CVC: Choice challenged
    * THE JUDICIARY: A case of freedom
    * Of Kashmir and other struggles
    * LABOUR ISSUES: Ghaziabad : Lives on contract
    * WILDLIFE: Vignettes of the wild
    * ESSAY: Power play
    * LIVELIHOOD ISSUES: Soligas losing their homes
    * OBITUARY: Bhagwan Das
    * Dashrath Patel
    * KOREAN PENINSULA : Crossing the limit
    * UPDATE: MEXICO : Women in drug cartels
    * TONGA : Winds of change
    * INTERVIEW: Noam Chomsky
    * EGYPT : Election victory by design
    * SCIENCE: Arsenic life?
    * UPDATE: Racist Rabbis
    * C.P. Chandrasekhar: Bailout bonanza
    * Bhaskar Ghose: Who should be CVC
    * Praful Bidwai: Credibility in peril
    * R.K. Raghavan: Politicising the police
    * Jayati Ghosh: Strange story of Single Market 

Download this issue here 

Saturday, December 18, 2010

Pratiyogita Darpan magazine January 2011 Free to Read online

Here is the current issue of Pratiyogita Darpan magazine January 2011 available for reading online here are the important contents of this issue.

United states and China in 21st century Relations of Paradoxes
Myanmar and Issues of the Northeast
Crime against women and constitutional safeguards
Public Policy Indian context
Green Revolution Becoming Evergreen 
New Horizons for further growth in health research overview
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation 
Trade and Industry International organization profile

Wednesday, December 8, 2010

Current Issue of Frontline Magazine December 04-17 free download

  •      ELECTIONS: Nitish wave in Bihar
  •      CONTROVERSY: Kerala: Ban on endosulfan
  •      EVENTS: AIDWA: Battles ahead
  •      REPORTS: West Bengal : Maoists’ new targets
  •      LEGISLATION: Sexual harassment Bill: Promise to women
  •      PHOTOGRAPHY: Robert Schaefer’s cyanotypes
  •      CINEMA: Interview: Anand Patwardhan
  •      TOURISM: Orissa: Season of melas
  •      SPACE: Vanishing sunspots
  •      NATO SUMMIT : The war debate
  •      MYANMAR : A new democracy
  •      IRAQ : Coalition deal
  •      UNITED STATES: Merchants of death
  •      Obama’s strategy for the East
  •      BANGLADESH : Politics of eviction
  •      TRAVEL: Jerusalem : A walk in the past
  •      UPDATE: U.K. students up in arms
  •      Industrial advance
  •      Centre of learning
  •      Smorgasbord of delights
  •      Bhaskar Ghose: Reality bites
  •      Praful Bidwai: The panic of 1962
  •      Jayati Ghosh: Way to go!
  •      R.K. Raghavan: Hong Kong model

Sunday, November 21, 2010

Free Download Current Issue of Frontline Magazine November 20 - December 03, 2010

Here is Frontline Magazine dated November 20 - December 03, 2010 available for download and here are some of the contents of this issue , you can find download link below  the contents.

  •  American agenda
  • CONTROVERSY: Mumbai: House of scandal, Kashmir : Muzzling dissent
  • OBITUARY: Siddartha Shankar Ray
  • SPOTLIGHT: Andhra Pradesh: The new loan sharks The route to disaster
  • CRIME: Tamil Nadu: Children as soft targets
  • DEVELOPMENT ISSUES: Power projects in Uttarakhand under fire
  • CONSERVATION: Saving Sahyadri
  • REPORTS: Hunger alarm
  • BRAZIL : Lula’s victory
  • YEMEN : Packaged terror
  • Praful Bidwai: The Posco question
  • Bhaskar Ghose: For a culture policy
  • Jayati Ghosh: Treacherous treaties
  • R.K. Raghavan: Grass-roots policing 
  • Uranium smugglers  
Download Frontline Magazine November 20 - December 03, 2010

Saturday, November 20, 2010

What is cloud computing bring out its essential features and list advantages and limitations – Civil service mains exam 2010


Cloud Computing is a general term used for computing that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet. The name cloud derived from cloud symbol that we use in flowcharts to represent Internet. Cloud Computing provides three types of services are

1. SaaS (Software as a Service) - Here the service providers host applications like spreadsheets, Documents etc. over a network i.e. Internet and are available to their customers at any time. 

2. PaaS (Platform as a Service) - The service provider rents the platform/software such as operating system , virtualized servers , Hardware to their customers and Paas allows customers to upgrade their platforms according to their wish.

3. IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service or Hardware as a service) - An organization or service provider outsources Hardware, networking devices, servers, storage etc. to their client or customer and charged as pay per minute or hour for using their services. ex. Amazon web services.

  • Reduces overall cost and increase efficiencies, especially when replacing an organization’s locally operated on-premise servers.
  • cloud computing has the potential to reduce a company's energy use and carbon emissions by at least 30% per user compared to an average on-premise installation of those applications.
  • Dynamic Provisioning: over-provisioning of servers at the cloud's operational scale can be very expensive. Cloud operators can quickly matching server capacity to demand shifts.
  • Multi-Tenancy: service providers are able to serve millions of users at thousands of companies simultaneously on one massive shared infrastructure.
  • Server Utilization: Cloud computing can drive energy savings by improving server utilization, which is the measurement of the portion of a server's capacity that an application actively uses.
  • Data center Efficiency: the way facilities are physically constructed, equipped with IT and supporting infrastructure, and managed has a major impact on the energy use for a given amount of computing power.
  • Ease of operations: A marketing manager or sales manager can update their database from anywhere, immediately keep their database up to date.

  • The biggest challenge for cloud computing is security as every operations are carried out online there may be high risk of malicious programs, hackers, phishing attacks etc..
  • It requires high speed internet/network connection as all the operations and transactions carried out over internet/internet.
  • Confidentiality of data is not assured as it is maintained by third party service provider.

Thursday, November 18, 2010

Pratiyogita Darpan magazine December 2010 read here

Here is current issue of pratiyogita darpan magazine December 2010 available online for reading and here are some of important contents of this issue

  • Learn to survive in New CSAT Culture
  • A Talisman for Civil Services Aspirants 
  • IBSA  An emerging forum for south-south cooperation
  • MDG Review Summit 2010 Hope and Despair
  • Communication is to personality what light is beauty
  • Aptitude and ethical decision making
  • United nations summit on millennium development goals
  • changing the face of Indian women from vedic to modern age
  • Organisation for prohibition of chemical weapons 
  • Environment and sustainable development

Explain and differentiate among Plasma, LCD and LED television technologies – Civil Services Main Exam 2010 Question.


·        A polymer which holds the liquid crystals between two transparent oppositely polarized layers these crystals can pass or block light depending upon their current consumption. Each pixel produces their respective color using their respective RGB sub pixels.

·        Low refresh rate meaning that motion blur often occurs and aren’t good for fast motion pictures (sports and movies).

·        Very little chance of a pixel burn-in or Dead pixel problem.

·        Unlike the standard CRT or Plasma, there are no phosphors to be lit so there is no radiation from the screen.

·        LCD TVs require backlit which is either a CCFL lamp or LEDs while plasma and LED TVs does require backlit. 

·        Higher image brightness over Plasma.

·        Color reproduction is not great as Plasma.

·        Lower contrast ratio, not as good for rendering deep blacks.

·        The size of LCD TV ranges from 14 inches to 102 inches. 

·        Viewing angle is lower than that of LED and plasma TVs.

·        Power consumption is less when compared to Plasma and higher when compared to LED TV.

·        Lower carbon emissions therefore eco-friendly. 

·        Cost effective and physically lighter than Plasma TVs and slightly larger than LED TVs as LCD TV requires backlit. 

·        The In plane switching panels (IPS) in LCD TVs significantly improves the contrast ratio and viewing angle.


·        LED TVs are actually the next generation of LCD screens. LED TVs are similar to LCD but here each pixel is actually a Light Emitting Diode (LED) instead of liquid crystals. LEDs do not require backlit as LCD which has either CCFL or LED backlit. 

·        LEDs have better black level and contrast ratio than LCD. 

·        As there is no need of backlit it consumes less power when compared to plasma and LCD.

·        The refresh rates are better than LCD and slightly lower or equal that of plasma displays.

·        Lower carbon emission than LCD and plasma.

·        High viewing angle than LCD.

·        Costlier than LCD TV.

·        Have higher life time than plasma.

·        The size of LCD TV ranges from 16 inches to 102 inches.

Plasma TV

·        Each pixel in Plasma TV is filled with xenon, neon and argon gasses which when electrically charged; the gas is ionized and will hit respective RGB colored phosphors produce colors respectively.

·        High contrast ratio than LCD due to its ability to show deeper blacks.

·        Excellent color accuracy reproduction therefore produces bright, clear images.

·        Very high viewing angle view the full screen from up to 178 degrees from either side.

·        Better pixel response time so excellent for motion playback especially for watching sports.

·        Overall image quality is better than that of an LCD and LED. 

·        They have short life spans Most are now rated in the 60,000 to 100,000 hours range or lifespan of about 10-15 years.

·        They won't work in high altitude because of problems for the plasma gasses in low pressures.

·        Prone to pixel burn-out problems. 

·        More heat generation.

·        Plasma TV sizes range from 42 inches to 65 inches or more. 

·        Plasma TV needs rooms with controlled low to normal lighting for better viewing experience.

·        Much Higher carbon emissions than both LCD and LED.

Saturday, November 13, 2010

What is Phytoremediation? Discuss its Applications Civil Services Main Exam General Studies question paper-II 2010

What is Phytoremediation? Discuss its Applications Civil Services General Studies question paper-II 2010

Phytoremediation refers to the use of plants for cleaning up contaminants in soil, groundwater, surface water and air. It is a cost-effective and non-polluting way to remove toxic chemicals that contaminate soil and water and also it offers remediation of brownfield sites. Phytoremediation has several methodologies which includes

1.    Phytoextraction or phytoconcentration : contaminant concentrated in roots, stem and foliage of plan.

2.    Phytodegradation: plant enzymes help catalyze breakdown of the contaminant molecule.

3.    Rhizosphere biodegradation: plant roots release nutrients to mircro-organisms which  are active in     
       bio-degradation of the contaminant molecule.

4.    Volatilization : transpiration of organics, selenium and mercury run through leaves of the plant

5.    Stabilization:  ant converts the contaminant into a form which is not bioavailable, or the plant prevents              the spreading of a contaminant plume.

Applications of Phytoremediation

•    The principal application of Phytoremediation is for lightly contaminated soils, sledges and waters where    the material to be treated is at a shallow or medium depth and the area to be treated is large, so that agronomic techniques are economical and applicable for both planting and harvesting.

•    Phytoremediation can be applied for producing energy from controlled combustion of harvested biomass

•    Applied for harvesting valuable metals that are dispersed in soil

•    Applied for providing quick remediation of Brownfield sites.

Wednesday, November 10, 2010

What is IPv6? Why we need IPv6 and advantages of IPv6


Internet protocol is a set of rules or mechanism that defines how communication should take over through the network or internet. Each computer on a network needs a unique address to identify itself like each house has a unique address in a city this unique address which assigned to a computer is called IP Address. The current version of Internet protocol is IPv4 (internet protocol version 4) which is 30 years old since it was created in 1970. The IPv4 is represented as 4 octets; each octet represented in decimal digits ranging from 0 to 255 and separated by a dot for example Each octet is 8 bits and four octets constitute 32 bit address space. . 4.3 billion addresses can be utilized using IPv4. But the internet is now running out of addresses due to the addition of lot of devices into internet such as desktops, laptops, servers, tablets, netbooks etc. all need an IP Address.

The IETF (internet engineering task force) came up with a new version of IP called IPv6 or IPng (next generation internet protocol) which resolves the IP address deficiency by providing billions of addresses. The IPv6 shifts to 128 bit IP address space thus providing 340 x 10 to the power of 36 addresses therefore its enough for each person in the world to have an IP address. Each Address is broken into 8 sets of 4 hexadecimal characters as follows

Each hexadecimal character is represented in 4 bits therefore each 4 hexadecimal character group is 16bits, all together constitutes 128 bit length address . IP v6  uses mandatory IPsec a security feature to encrypt ,  decrypt and authenticate  data packets so that the data will be much harder to hack  while transmission.  

  • Solves the addressing limitation of IPv4
  • Provides improved security features as it has capabilities for verifying address as well as establishing trust between routers
  • IPv6 is backward compatible with IPv4
  • Provides Better performance and reliability

Saturday, November 6, 2010

Frontline Magazine November 06 - 19 Download here

    Here is the current issue of Frontline November 06 - 19 available for download
    The contents of this issue are as follows

    * ASSEMBLY ELECTIONS: Bihar : Nitish Kumar’s show
    * MOVEMENTS: 25 years of the NBA
    * CONTROVERSY: Aditya Thackeray’s initiation
    * Rohinton Mistry’s response
    * LABOUR ISSUES: Chennai: Workers vs multinational
    * Interview: A. Soundararajan, CITU leader
    * MANIPUR: Irom Sharmila battles on
    * HERITAGE: Masterpieces in metal
    * Grand show in Thanjavur
    * Making of bronzes
    * RIGHT TO INFORMATION: Widening horizons
    * OBITUARY: S.R. Sankaran
    * POLITICS: Kerala: Losing ground
    * IRAQ : Wikileaks confirms U.S. war crimes
    * PAKISTAN : Executive vs judiciary
    * ECUADOR : Coup countered
    * INDONESIA : Growing status
    * UNITED STATES: Using drones to attack civilians in Afghanistan and Pakistan
    * NOBEL PRIZE: Medicine: Test tube baby
    * Unsung Indian hero
    * Chemistry: Bonding magic
    * Physics: Wonder material
    Download here Frontline Magazine November 06 - 19

Friday, October 29, 2010

Free Download Frontline Magazine October 23 - November 05 2010

Friends here is the current issue of   Frontline Magazine October 23 - November 05  2010 available for free download  , the contents of this issue are,

    * ASSEMBLY ELECTIONS: Bihar : Battle of slogans
    * KERALA: Local body elections
    * WEST BENGAL : Beating back the Maoists
    * AYODHYA: Debate on verdict
    * Interview: Anupam Gupta
    * THE JUDICIARY: Sting operation is legal
    * EDUCATION: Tamil Nadu: School fee imbroglio
    * INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: Free software option
    * ENVIRONMENT: Ladakh: Feeling the heat
    * AWARDS: Jnanpith for O.N.V. Kurup, poet of the masses
    * Shahryar’s award: Boost to Urdu
    * CINEMA: Ritwik Ghatak’s classic
    * ART: Sculptures by Sumedh Rajendran
    * COMMONWEALTH GAMES: Theatre of joy
    * NOBEL PRIZE: Peace Prize for Chinese dissident Liu Xiaobao
    * UNITED STATES: Waning dream
    * NORTH KOREA : Son to succeed
    * INTERVIEW: Lisa Taraki, Palestinian sociologist
    * Technology deficit
   Free Download Frontline Magazine October 23 - November 05  2010

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

Indian Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory (IndIGO)

Indian Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory (IndIGO)

Indian initiative in gravitational wave observatory consortium recently announced the project to construct Optical gravitational wave detector in the first stage to build a prototype of the detector which is 3m long and  building of prototype led by Unnikrishnan and Rajalakshmi of  Tata Institute of Fundamental Research who had funded Rs. 2 crore for this project.

What is Gravitational Wave

Gravitational waves are actually faint ripples in fabrication of space and time and are emitted by binary stars, black holes and neutron stars etc.. 

In 1916, Einstein predicted that, when two stars circle around each other as a result of mutual gravitational attraction the stars swing around each other pulled by enormous forces would emit gravitational wave.

Later Russell Hussle and Joseph Taylor had proved the presence of gravitational wave through their experiment and won noble prize for the same in 1993. 

Gravitational waves makes changes in the length of the objects in their path but only by a small part (like one part in 10 to the power 21)  which is extremely small. Gravitational waves are difficult to detect because of their weakness and their frequencies are extremely low, below 1 Hertz therefore it is vulnerable to seismic noise.

Optical gravitational wave detector proposed by IndIGO will be having a ' L ' shaped detector having two 4 km long arms with reflecting mirrors suspended in high vacuum without any disturbances at the both the end of the arms. A laser beam is directed towards a beam splitter which splits the beam into two arms then the beam passes through the vacuumated arms and gets reflected by mirror then return towards the beam splitter if the there is influence of  gravitational wave then the returned wave will be detected by the photo detector and the intensity will be measured will be the measurement of gravitational wave.

Benefits of Gravitational wave detector

  1. It is an astronomical tool For better understanding of cosmos.
  2. Enable us to observe cosmic and astrophysical phenomena occuring in universe and also provide a direct proof for existence of black holes.
  3. To know the Limits of deformation of spinning neutron stars.
  4. Useful in the Observation of universe in first few milliseconds.

Monday, October 18, 2010

Syllabus and Pattern for Civil Services Aptitude Test 2011 (civil services preliminary exam)

Ministry of Personnel released the Syllabus and Pattern for Civil Services Aptitude Test 2011 (civil services preliminary exam) today here are the details for the two papers 

     (Paper 1) (200 marks) - Duration : Two hrs.

·       Current events  of national and international importance
·       History of India  and Indian national movement
·       Indian and World Geography- physical, social, economic geography of India and the world
·       Indian Polity and governance – constitution, political system, panchayati raj, public policy,   Rights issues, etc.
·        Economic and social development – sustainable development, poverty, inclusion, demographics, social sector initiatives etc.
·     General issues on environmental ecology, bio-diversity and climate change-that  donot require subject specialization
·      General science. 

(Paper II) (200 marks) – Duration : Two hrs

     ·         Comprehension
·         Interpersonal skills including communication skills
·         Logical reasoning and analytical ability
·         Decision making and problem solving
·         General mental ability
·         Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude etc. (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. –Class X level)
·         English language comprehension skills (Class X level)

Saturday, October 16, 2010

Pratiyogita Darpan November 2010 Issue (Read online)

 Pratiyogita Darpan November 2010 Issue is available to Read online here. some of the articles in this issue are women empowerment , green banking , india china relations , personality development etc..                      

Sunday, September 19, 2010

Pratiyogita Darpan October 2010 Issue (Read online)

Here is the Pratiyogita Darpan October 2010 Issue available to read online
some of the Important contents of this issue are as follows

Indo-Burmese Relations
Indo-China Relations
Personality development 
Integrated energy Policy of India
Civil Services mains exam GS  paper

Read here the entire Pratiyogita Darpan October 2010 magazine online

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

Chandrayaan -2 Payloads Details

Chandrayaan2, India's second mission to moon, is being slated for launch during 2013. Chandrayaan2 will have 
  1. An Orbiter (satellite), 
  2. A Lander and 
  3. A Rover. 
Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft weighs about 2,650 kg at lift-off of which the orbiter weight is about 1,400 kg and lander weight is about 1,250 kg. Chandrayaan-2 is planned to be launched onboard Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota. While the lander will be provided by Russia, the orbiter and the rover are being built by ISRO.

The five payloads of Chandrayaan-2 orbiter are :

1. Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS) from ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore and Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM) from Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad for mapping the major elements present on the lunar surface.

2. L and S band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad for probing the first few tens of meters of the lunar surface for the presence of different constituents including water ice. SAR is expected to provide further evidence confirming the presence of water ice below the shadowed regions of the moon.

3. Imaging IR Spectrometer (IIRS) from SAC, Ahmedabad for the mapping of lunar surface over a wide wavelength range for the study of minerals, water molecules and hydroxyl present.

4. Neutral Mass Spectrometer (ChACE2) from Space Physics Laboratory (SPL), Thiruvananthapuram to carry out a detailed study of the lunar exosphere.

5. Terrain Mapping Camera2 (TMC2) from SAC, Ahmedabad for preparing a three-dimensional map essential for studying the lunar mineralogy and geology.

The two scientific payloads on Chandrayaan-2 rover are:

1. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS) from Laboratory for Electro Optic Systems (LEOS), Bangalore

2. Alpha Particle Induced X ray Spectroscope (APIXS) from PRL, Ahmedabad.

Source: official ISRO press release.